To Jains the universe is composed of two types of space. A Sanskrit term meaning ‘world space’, loka-ākāśa is a vast but limited area, which is the inhabited universe where all jivas, humans, deities and all other forms of life live. Here the souls live and travel through the cycle of rebirths. It is also where the other substances are found the pudgal, dharma, adharma and kāla. Outside it is ‘non-world space’ – aloka-ākāśa.

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