Doctrine of philosophical viewpoints, partial expression of truth or estimate of a reality from a given angle. Related to anekānta-vāda. There are seven different viewpoints listed in the Tattvārtha-sūtra.

The Digambara thinker Kundakunda distinguishes between:

  • the conventional view – vyavahāra-naya
  • the unconventional or absolute view – niścaya-naya.
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