Early Jain philosophers

In the 1998 Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Jayandra Soni briefly discusses the three Jain thinkers who influenced most later philosophers of Jainism:

  • Kundakunda
  • Umāsvāti or Umāsvāmin
  • Siddhasena Divākara.


Early photographs of Mount Abu

Historical photographs of Mount Abu, popular pilgrimage site famous for its white marble temples, presented by Professor Frances W. Pritchett of Columbia University in New York.


Eight auspicious symbols

Pictures and brief explanations of the eight auspicious symbols according to the Svetāmbara sect are provided by the HereNow4U website. The explanations of some of the items are not necessarily the same as those given in JAINpedia and other sources.


Eight auspicious symbols

Drawings and short explanations of the eight auspicious symbols according to the Svetāmbara sect are provided by the Jain Belief website. The order of the items is slightly different from that given in JAINpedia and other sources.


Elements of the Jain symbol

Jainworld.com describes the meaning of the different holy elements that make up the main Jain symbol.


Ellora caves

The Ellora Caves website is part of an academic project to document the 34 cave temples at Ellora, Maharashtra. Most of the caves at this World Heritage Site are Buddhist and Hindu caves, with five belonging to the Jain faith. The earliest Digambara caves have been dated to the ninth century. They are famous for their detailed sculptures.


English translations of the Sanskrit epics

Romesh C. Dutt's abridged English translations of the ancient Sanskrit epics, the Mahābhārata and the Rāmāyaṇas. Initially published in 1899, the poems are in rhyming couplets and are Hindu tellings of the works. Provided by the Sacred Texts website, the text can be read online or downloaded as a plain text file.


Entrance to Jain cave temple

The portico of one of the Jain cave temples at Ellora, Maharashtra, is captured in this 2008 photograph on Flickr. There are 34 cave temples at this site, but only five Jain temples. The Jain caves are noted for their fine carving and impressive sculpted figures of Jinas and other holy figures.


Explaining the siddhacakra

Lay woman Heeral Shah explains the different elements of a siddhacakra mahā-yantra. Provided by the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, this video also includes a transcript.


Explanations of Jain symbols

The website Namoka Tirth provides explanations for the common Jain symbols. Unexpectedly, this Digambara organisation offers the Śvetāmbara list of eight auspicious symbols.

Note that some of the website's assertions are not accepted by professional scholars because there is no indisputable historical proof. An example here is the dating of the first Jina, Ṛṣabha.

As with many Jain websites, the use of diacritics and transliterations here is inconsistent and does not meet academic standards.


Exterior of Ellora caves

This 2010 photograph on Flickr shows the entrance to one of the five Jain caves at Ellora, Maharashtra. The elephant is a symbol of royalty, which underlines the exalted spiritual rank of the Jinas and other holy figures depicted inside the cave temples.


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