Jai Nakoda Bhairav

A Facebook group called Jai Nakoda Bhairav provides pictures and information in Hindi about the Śvetāmbara guardian god Nākoḍā Bhairava.


Jain art in New York

A slideshow from the New York Times highlighting some of the artefacts in the two exhibitions in New York on Jain art that opened in the autumn of 2009. One was at the Metropolitan Museum of Art while the other was staged at the Rubin Museum of Art.


Jain ascetic

The Cleveland Museum of Art provides an unusual painting of a Jain monk carrying his mendicant equipment. Clad in white robes, the monk holds his alms bowl and a staff, which mark him out as a member of a Śvetāmbara Mūrti-pūjaka sect. Under his arm he carries his monastic broom and what may be a holy text. The Gujarati artist, Basawan, who worked for the Mughal Emperor Akbar, painted this picture around 1600, and its realistic treatment shows familiarity with European artistic styles.


Jain beliefs about the soul

An overview of Jain beliefs about the soul on the BBC website, provided as part of the Religions section.


Jain cave at Badami

This 2010 YouTube video shows the interior of the Jain cave temple at Badami in Karnataka, with details of the images of Jinas and deities.


Jain doctrine

Jainworld.com gives a detailed explanation of key elements of Jain doctrine, including the:

  • three gems
  • concept of knowledge
  • lay conduct
  • vows
  • penance.


Jain eLibrary

The Jain eLibrary provides PDFs or other files of Jain texts to download for non-commercial purposes. Scriptures, commentaries, dictionaries, articles, magazines and books on all aspects of Jainism are available in many languages, including English and modern Indian languages. Most sects are represented and both ancient and contemporary works are included.

Only registered users who have signed into the site can download material. To register, you must provide a valid email address, a password and some personal details.

You will need to have Adobe Acrobat Reader on your computer to open PDF files.


Jain Karma Philosophy – Punya (Meritorious) and Pāp (Sinful) Karma

This article by Pravin K. Shah on the HereNow4U website explains some of the main classes of karma in Jain philosophy, namely:

  • destructive – ghātiyā
  • non-destructive – aghātiyā
  • meritorious – puṇya
  • bad – pāpa.


Jain Karmic Theory and Genetic Science

Sohan Raj Tater's 2008 article on the HereNow4U website examines the relationship between the Jain theory of karma and contemporary scientific work in genetics.


Jain Literature and Theatre

A short essay entitled Jain Literature and Theatre by Atul K. Shah is available to read on the HereNow4U website. The author provides a background to the practice of the Jain faith and its expression in the performing of music, dance and drama,with a focus on Jains in the UK.

You will need to have Adobe Acrobat Reader on your computer to open PDF files.


Jain mantras

This 2007 animation from YouTube features a Digambara monk singing the fundamental Jain sacred formulas. The second is the Namaskāra-mantra, also called the Navkār-mantra or Namokār-mantra. A very old mantra in Prakrit, it can be sung to various melodies. It is chanted daily to the 'five types of beings worthy of worship' or Supreme Beings':

  • enlightened teachers – Arhats or Jinas
  • liberated souls – siddhas
  • mendicant leaders – ācāryas
  • teachers – upādhyāyas
  • mendicants – sādhus.

Then comes a short mantra about the emptiness of the world of rebirths and the celebration of the 'four auspicious things' or 'four refuges': 

  • Arhat
  • siddha
  • monks
  • law – dharma.


Jain manuscript paintings – essay and slideshow

Art historian John Guy writes a brief essay on the development of Jain manuscript paintings in western India. A slideshow of folios held in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, USA, illustrates his points. The essay and slideshow are available on the website of the Met.


Jain Path to Liberation

Pravin K. Shah describes the route to liberation for Jains, which is based on the 'three jewels' – ratna-traya – for the Jainism Literature Center, associated with the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard University.


Jain research institutions in India

Jainworld provides a list of research institutions in India that focus on various aspects of Jainism. 


Jain resources online

The Hinduwebsite provides a page of online resources on Jainism.


Jain Samaj Europe

Set up in the early 1970s, the Jain Centre in Leicester, England, is one of the main centres of community and religion for British Jains. Find out more about the Jain faith and the local Jain community and read about upcoming events and activities. 


Jain sculpture essay and slideshow

The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York presents a short essay on Jain sculpture. It is accompanied by a slideshow of examples in the museum's collections.


Jain studies at Claremont Lincoln University

Enrolling students from 2011, Claremont Lincoln University in California, USA, focuses on the academic study of religions. It offers a programme of Jain studies in partnership with Jain organisations based primarily in North America.


Jain Studies in Science

Professor M. R. Gelra summarises the Jain faith and how it relates to science in the preface to his 2007 book Jain Studies and Science. The full text is available to read online on the HereNow4U website.


Jain temples

A comprehensively illustrated examination of Jain temples from an architectural viewpoint. Entitled 'Jaina Architecture in India', the material has been collected by a Japanese architect, Takeo Kamiya, over 30 years. It covers major pilgrimage destinations as well as smaller shrines throughout India.


Jain temples at the V&A

The Victoria and Albert Museum in London presents brief information about Jain temples, accompanied by pictures and photographs.


Jain Tower and Temple at Chittore

Entitled Jain Tower and Temple at Chittore, India this landscape captures a scene that caught the eye of the English artist Marianne North during her journey through India in 1877 to 1878. It is available as part of the Marianne North Online Gallery at the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew in the United Kingdom.


Jain universe

The Herenow4U website provides a detailed diagram of the Jain universe and a summary of traditional cosmology. It is a page from the 2008 edition of Introduction to Jainism by Rudi Jansma and Sneh Rani Jain.


Jain Vishva Bharati University

Located in Ladnun, Rajasthan, the Jain Vishva Bharati University is closely associated with the Terāpanthin monastic order. It also offers programmes in academic fields besides Jain studies.


Jaina Art and Iconography

HereNow4U provides an edited extract from the book Jaina Art and Iconography, by the Indian scholar Maruti Nandan Tiwari, in which he discusses the Jinas, deities and legendary heroes of Jainism.


Jaina Doctrine Of Karma

In this 2005 book, N. L. Kachhara examines how the Jain doctrine of karma can be reconciled with the modern science of biology, especially genetics. The online version is on the HereNow4U website.

To move to the next page, click on an arrow or slide the button along the scroll bar at the top and bottom of each page.


Jaina temples of Tamil Nadu

A scholarly project researching the Jain temples of Tamil Nadu, investigating worship rituals and celebrations in addition to the architecture, art and inscriptions of the buildings. Led by the French Institute of Pondicherry, the project will be published as a CD-ROM.


Jainism and Peace

Narendra Bhandari emphasises how the key Jain concept of ahiṁsā – non-harm or non-violence – underlies the principle of peace in this chapter from Jainism: the Eternal and Universal Path for Enlightenment.

The online version of this 2011 book is provided by the HereNow4U website.


Jainism summary for teachers

The Religious Education Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Handbook provides a section on Jainism for teachers of religious education in the UK.


Jainism, women and equality

BBC Religions provides a summary and brief discussion of the status of women in the Jain faith. 


Jains in the Multicultural Mughal Empire

Download issue 7 of the CoJS newsletter, published in March 2012, to read the article 'Jains in the Multicultural Mughal Empire' by Audrey Truschke.

The Centre of Jaina Studies in the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), at the University of London, publishes an annual newsletter, which is available to download as a PDF. The newsletter features articles, summaries of research, academic news, book reviews, reports of exhibitions, notifications and reports of conferences and symposia.

You will need to have Adobe Acrobat Reader on your computer to open PDF files.


James Tod biography

An officer in the British East India Company, James Tod (1782–1835) published extensive accounts of the history and geography of India, including details of his travels in Gujarat and Rajasthan between 1819 and 1823. This entry from volume 56 of the Dictionary of National Biography (1885–1900) appears in Wikisource.


Jean-Antoine Dubois biography

Wikisource provides a profile of Abbé Dubois (1765–1848) from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia. Dubois preached Christianity in India for over thirty years and wrote extensively about his experiences.

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_%281913%29/Jean-Antoine_Dubois fr

Jina and attendant deities

Seventh-century bronze image of a Jina and his attendant śāsana-devatās – ‘deities of the teaching’ – who protect and promote his teaching. Identified as the 22nd Jina Neminātha or Lord Nemi, this figure is deep in meditation. Nemi's yakṣa – male attendant deity to a Jina – is called Gomedha while his yakṣī – female attendant deity – is known as Ambikā or Kūṣmāṇḍinī. This rare early representation of a Jina is available to view on the website of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, USA.


Jina and retinue

Metal image of a Jina and his retinue from Karnatak on the website of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, USA. The unidentified Jina sits cross-legged in meditation on a lotus throne, fanned by servants with fly-whisks – carũrīs. His yakṣa and yakṣī pair of attendant gods sit on smaller lotus thrones on either side of him.


Jina head

A stone head of a Jina dating from the 5th century, created in the Mathura region in northern India, which was a centre of the Jain faith. This zoomable photograph, provided by the auction house Christie's, is accompanied by an audio file on Gupta workshops in Mathura by Hugo K. Weihe, a specialist in Indian and Southeast Asian Art at Christie's.


Jina images and temples at Gwalior

The pilgrimage centre of Gwalior in central India is famous for its carvings of Jinas. Both freestanding and relief sculptures, the Jinas are found in the temples as well as in panels cut into walls of rock. This collection of drawings and photographs is presented by Professor Frances W. Pritchett of Columbia University in New York.


Jina statues at Gwalior

Flickr provides pictures of the mutilated Digambara figures of Jinas in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh. Taken in 2007, these photographs by Sergio Conti also show some of the later repairs to several of the rock-cut statues. The huge naked images were carved in the 15th century and damaged a century later on the orders of the Emperor Babur, founder of the Mughal dynasty.


Jina with his yakṣa and yakṣī

Eleventh-century metal image of an unidentified Jina attended by his yakṣa and yakṣī. Each of the 24 Jinas has a pair of śāsana-devatās – ‘deities of the teaching’ – who protect and promote his teachings. The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, USA, provides views of the front and back of this artefact.


Jina with yakṣa and yakṣī

Dating from the 12th to 13th centuries, this metal figure of an unidentified Jina is flanked by his attendant deities, known as śāsana-devatās – ‘deities of the teaching’. They have not attained final liberation and are able to intervene in human affairs, unlike a Jina. By convention the male yakṣa is presented on the Jina's right side and the female yakṣī on his left. This photograph is on the website of the British Museum in London.


Jina’s parents

The Asian Art Museum in San Francisco, USA, provides a photograph of a sculpture of the parents of a Jain teacher or Jina. From Uttar Pradesh, this stele was carved in the tenth century CE.


Jinas in hrīṃ syllable

The auctioneers Christie's presents a Jain maṇḍala painted on cloth from the 19th century. Featuring the 24 Jinas arranged in the sacred mantra of hrīṃ, this colourful diagram helps in meditation.


Jīva and Ajīva

Sadhvi Vishrut Vibha summarises the two central Jain principles of sentient and non-sentient substances in her 2007 book An Introduction to Jainism, provided on the HereNow4U website.


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