Sanskrit for ‘worship’ or ‘homage’. All Jains perform rites of honour to the 24 Jinas. Rites of worship take place daily, with more elaborate ceremonies performed on holy days. Mendicant and lay Jains perform different rituals. Some sects worship images – mūrti-pūjaka – and others do not, and different sects have various practices. Focused on images or not, worship can be:
- external or material – dravya-pūjā – involving offerings of food, drink and precious substances
- internal or mental – bhava-pūjā – including singing hymns of praise, reciting mantras and meditating.