A well-dressed bearded figure gestures to two armed men on prancing horses. A strangely clad figure with blue skin stands behind him.

The bearded man is the villain Umar, giving orders to his soldiers. He tells them they should chase Ḍhola and Māru, who are running away. Umar wants the beautiful Māru for his harem.

The blue-skinned figure is the Cāraṇa, who is listening to Umar. He is a kind of double agent.

The painting depicts an episode from the very popular love story of Ḍhola and Māru.

Other visual elements

The paintings of this manuscript are colourful and lively. Note the comparatively modern format of the page, very different from the traditional long and narrow rectangle.


The elaborate script used for the main text is the Jaina Devanāgarī script. It is used for writing numerous Indian languages, here for Rajasthani / Gujarati.