Manuscripts of the Bhaktāmara-stotra are often artefacts with noteworthy aesthetic features, which underline the particular value and presence of this hymn in the Jain tradition. The song has magic powers and is part of the Jain tantric tradition, associated with mantras and yantras.

Each recto and verso page of this manuscript has a central vignette. All different from each other, they depict auspicious symbols or figures.

Here the painting is a combination of two auspicious symbols:

A cushion is placed on the throne, which has a roof in the form of a royal canopy. It is adorned with banners on each side. Thus it symbolises victory and glory.

The yellow designs on the right and on the left are difficult to interpret precisely. They recall temple structures.

Selected pages of this manuscript are digitised on JAINpedia.

Other visual elements

There are several notable things about this page.

  • The top left corner contains the title of the text and the folio number: Bhaktāmara 5
  • Verse numbers are at the end of each stanza and are often written in red between two vertical lines, like here.
  • The margins are decorated with an ornamental motif of flowers and leaves.


The elaborate script is the Jaina Devanāgarī script, here written in a form which recalls calligraphy. It is used for writing numerous Indian languages, here for Sanskrit.

The red vertical lines – daṇḍas – within the text are used to divide the parts of a verse. Single ones mark the end of a pāda, a verse part. Double ones mark the end of the whole verse.

On this page red ink is also used for some words. Red is used to write the:

  • beginning of the last verse, on line 2
  • colophon, on lines 4 and 5.