The partly damaged caption in the upper-left corner says: Neminirvāṇa – ‘Nemi’s emancipation’.

A large figure of Neminātha or Lord Nemi is sitting on a throne in a garden, with a golden crescent below. The 22nd Jina is meditating in the lotus posture.

The golden crescent is the siddha-śilā, which represents the concept of emancipationsiddhi, mukti or nirvāṇa. This indicates that Nemi’s soul is being liberated from his physical body. When Nemi died on Mount Girnār at the age of 1000 his soul was emancipated.

Other visual elements

The bottom of the right margin contains the number 88. This is the folio number, in a square with two blue lines as an ornamental motif.

The original paper is slightly damaged. But, as with many Kalpa-sūtra manuscripts, there is a clear intention to make the manuscript a valuable and remarkable object in itself. This aim is signalled by the:

  • coloured background for the text
  • gold ink instead of the standard black ink
  • decorated border with blue floral motifs
  • three diamonds filled with gold ink, with arrow-like blue lines and surrounding blue border as ornamental motifs.

The three diamonds along the central horizontal plane are symbolic reminders of the way in which manuscripts were bound when they were on palm leaf. Strings through holes in the paper were used to thread together the loose folios so the reader could turn them over easily. The diamonds are in the places where the holes would once have been.