In the centre of a stepped panel painting, a golden figure sits in the lotus posture of meditationpadmāsana – with a śrīvatsa on his chest. Either side are two worshippers fanning him with fly-whisks. Above him is a triple umbrella, which is a symbol of his power.

The golden figure is the last Jina, Mahāvīra, easily recognisable from the emblem of the lions below him. On the right side is a white lotus with eight petals, which is an auspicious sign.

In this manuscript this image, at the centre of the page, recurs at the end of each chapter – sandhi. This is at the end of chapter 2. The text of the final colophon occupies lines 3 to 6 of the page. It is emphasised by orange powder.

It reads:

iya siriJasaharacarie daya-lakkhaṇa-dhamma-bhāvaṇā-sarie siri-paṃḍiya-Raidhū-virai[e] siri-mahābhavva-Hemarāja-sāhu-ṇāmaṃkie piṭṭhamaya-kukkuḍa-devī-valivihāṇa-vaṇṇaṇo ṇāma bīuṃ saṃdhi paricheu.

Thus ends the second chapter, describing the cockerel made of flour and the ceremony of offering to the goddess, in the story of Yaśodhara, devoted to reflection and doctrine, having the characteristic of compassion, which was composed by Pandit Raïdhū and is dedicated to the glorious noble Hemarāja.

The long protruding eye is a typical feature of western Indian painting. Its origin is unclear.

Other visual elements

This is a good example of an average manuscript. A red background is used for the painting but there is no use of gold, intricate design elements or elaborate script.

The bottom of the right margin contains the number 4, which is the folio number.

In the upper and lower margins there are syllables missing from the main text, or corrections. The number before them is the line number where they should be inserted.


The script used for the main text is the Jaina Devanāgarī script. It is used for writing numerous Indian languages, here Apabhraṃśa Prakrit.