The caption in the left-hand margin states: Jasogha dīkṣā – ‘Jasogha’s initiation‘.

Two sitting figures face each other. The one on the left is naked while the other is clothed and raises his hand to his head. The scene is set in a natural landscape, represented by a tree on each side.

On the left side is a Digambara monk. He is totally naked because he is a full monk, not a novice. In this version of the story, his name is Varadatta, as mentioned in line 3 of the facing text: Varadattamuṇiṃdahu pāsi – ‘near the monk Varadatta’. In front of him is the former King Yaśogha, who has shed his ornaments and does not wear an upper garment. He is performing the ritual gesture of dīkṣā that symbolises religious initiation as a monk, namely plucking out his hair.

The long protruding eye is a typical feature of western Indian painting. Its origin is unclear.

Other visual elements

This is a good example of an average manuscript. A red background is used for the painting but there is no use of gold, intricate design elements or elaborate script.

The bottom of the right margin contains the number 4, which is the folio number.

In the upper and lower margins there are syllables missing from the main text, or corrections. The number before them is the line number where they should be inserted.


The script used for the main text is the Jaina Devanāgarī script. It is used for writing numerous Indian languages, here Apabhraṃśa Prakrit.